Character Sets and Collations in MySQL

A character set is a set of symbols and encodings. A collation is a set of rules for comparing characters in a character set. Let's make the distinction clear with an example of an imaginary character set.

Suppose that we have an alphabet with four letters: A, B, a, b. We give each letter a number: A = 0, B = 1, a = 2, b = 3. The letter A is a symbol, the number 0 is the encoding for A, and the combination of all four letters and their encodings is a character set.

Optimizing Database Structure

The database structure optimization is very important because if you store large data in in small space then it is save I/O and search time. The following points should be kept in mind when design DB structure.

  • Optimizing Data Size
  • Optimizing MySQL Data Types
  • Optimizing for Many Tables
  • Internal Temporary Table Use in MySQL

Optimizing Data Size

What Is New in MySQL 8.0

The following features have been added to MySQL 8.0:

Data dictionary:MySQL now incorporates a transactional data dictionary that stores information about database objects

Atomic data definition statements (Atomic DDL):An atomic DDL statement combines the data dictionary updates, storage engine operations, and binary log writes associated with a DDL operation into a single, atomic transaction.